Law is a system of rules developed and enforced by governmental or civic organizations to govern behavior in a polity, with the precise definition itself a matter of longstanding disagreement. It’s been variously defined as the science of justice and the art of law. In its most fundamental terms, the law is defined as the ordering of individuals and groups in relation to their interaction with one another, with the help of authority and forms of public legislation.
The science of law is the study of how laws and legal systems work to resolve disputes and promote societal objectives. A number of approaches are applied in the process of understanding the law and its regulation. One of the most influential methods is the traditional view of jurisprudence, which traces the development of law back to the earliest forms of law in the Greek and Roman civilizations. Jurisprudence traces the development of law back to ancient civilisations and judicial systems around the world. This enables us to appreciate the differences in the development of law across different cultures and societies.
Early civilizations such as those in ancient Persia, Greece and Rome established the foundation of civil law. For example, in ancient Persia the government established a system of laws codified by Alexander the Great. All citizens were subject to the same laws and civil servants, such as government officials were expected to follow the civil codes strictly. Civil law developed from being a set of specific laws formulated in response to individual needs to become a body of law recognized by the international community and by parities such as the European and American governments.
In the United States, the development of the legal system was much slower, perhaps because of the different nature of the country than in ancient Persia or Greece. The main reason for this was the absence of a centralized legal system in the United States. Unlike Europe, the majority of American colonies were not involved in a common political structure. Colonies did not develop a system of laws similar to those of Europe. The lack of a centralized legal system meant that the development of civil and property law was more gradual.
The United States developed a system of laws that have remained largely unencumbered by changes in the interpretation of the law or any changes in the interpretation of local customs. The evolution of this system has also left some major gaps in the field of criminal law. However, the federal government and the states have been successful in establishing standards of conduct for use in resolving disputes within the framework of the law.
The most important function of the courts is to interpret the law and to decide whether there is a basis for a claim or not. Justices of the Supreme Court have broad discretion to construe criminal laws so that they benefit society. The problem arises when justice is interpreted according to the particular prejudices of the judges. For example, white Americans often believe that they benefit from laws that are more favorable to them than others. In order to overcome this prejudice, a black American would have to file a case in a court of equal justice with the same race who has abused the power of the courts.
Another area of civil law that has evolved from the common law is tort law. Tort law is the body of law dealing with the civil wrongs and harms that occur to another person. There are two types of tort law – civil law and criminal law. Civil law is the body of law that deals with disputes between a private party and a public official such as a judge, prosecutor, or a jury. Criminal law is the body of law that punishes those who commit crimes against society or state, or who abuse other state or federal laws. Many people confuse criminal and civil law, especially when it comes to crimes such as murder, assault, DUI, sex crimes, etc.
One area of specialization that is growing rapidly in the field of law is administrative law. Administrative law covers all the different aspects of day-to-day operations that businesses face. It includes the regulation of corporations, labor unions, tax and legal affairs, educational policies, healthcare, intellectual property, etc. In addition to the many areas of criminal law that deal primarily with those who commit crimes against society, administrative law also tackles issues such as workers’ compensation, workplace safety, regulatory policy, and commercial policy. The growth and expansion of administrative law could arguably be seen as one of the most significant events in the history of the United States since the country was formed.